A city still under siege
One and a half years after the US assault on Fallujah, residents tell of ongoing
suffering, lack of jobs, little reconstruction and continuing violence.
The US Marines Corps launched Operation Phantom Fury against the city of Fallujah
in November 2004, destroying an estimated 70% of the buildings, homes and shops,
and killing between 4,000 and 6,000 people, according to the Fallujah-based
non-governmental organization (NGO) the Study Center for Human Rights and Democracy
Inter Press Service (IPS) found that the city remains under draconian, biometric
security, with retina scans, fingerprinting and X-raying required for anyone
entering the city. Fallujah remains an island: not even the residents of the
surrounding towns and villages such as Karma, Habbaniya, Khalidiya, which fall
under Fallujah's administrative jurisdiction, are allowed in.
Security badges are required for anyone wishing to enter the city. To obtain
a badge, one has to be a Fallujah native from a certain class. That is, if one
is from Fallujah and a government official, a high-class badge of grade G will
be issued. Journalists get an X-grade badge. Then there are B for businessmen
and C for those who have contracts with the US military in the city. Last are
the R-grade badges, for those not to be admitted through the main checkpoint
at the west side of the city and must seek entrance through "second class"
Having entered the city through the main checkpoint, the first thing visible
are the destroyed homes in the al-Askari district. Virtually every home in this
area has been destroyed or seriously damaged.
"I could not rebuild my house again because rebuilding is rather costly
nowadays," Walid, a 48-year-old officer with the former Iraqi army, told
IPS. With sorrow in his eyes he told of how he built his home six years ago.
After the destruction, "They [US military] paid us 70% of the compensation,
and with the unemployment in the city we spent most of it on food and medicine.
Now everybody is waiting for the remaining 30%."
A slightly different version of this same story could be told by the hundreds
of people who lost their houses in the April and November 2004 bombing campaigns.
Across the Euphrates River sits Fallujah General Hospital. Built in 1964, the
hospital was unable to function during either siege because it was being occupied
by the US military.
Doctors were reluctant to talk to IPS unless promised anonymity. "It is
more a barn than a hospital, and we are not honored to work in it," said
one doctor. "There is a horrible lack of medical supplies and equipment,
and the Ministry of Health is not doing much about it," added another doctor,
also speaking on condition of anonymity.
When IPS mentioned a new hospital under construction in the city, one of the
doctors replied, with irony, that half of the people of Fallujah would be dead
before that hospital project was completed. He said an emergency plan for the
existing hospital was essential, especially because people were too afraid of
seeking medical attention in any of the Baghdad hospitals for fear of being
kidnapped and killed by death squads.
The situation is further complicated by the fact that Ramadi General Hospital,
often used by residents of Fallujah, is no longer accessible due to the ongoing
US military siege of that city.
During the interview of the doctors, patients and their companions gathered
around and started complaining about "the lack of everything" in the
hospital. "You press people always come here and talk to us, but nothing
ever comes of it," said an elderly woman in a challenging tone. "If
you put me on television, I will tell the whole world how bad the situation
is in this city."
The doctors interviewed, however, did praise the role of some local and international
NGOs that had offered help to the hospital on occasion.
The people of Fallujah are struggling to survive amid skyrocketing unemployment,
lack of supplies and ongoing violence in the city. At a grocery market, there
was another side to the story. Haji Majeed al-Jumaily, 64, was a blacksmith
before his hands weakened. He asked the grocer a dozen times how much an item
cost before saying, "I only have 2,000 dinars [less than US$1.50] to spend,
and I don't know what to buy with it. Everything is so expensive and my nine
family members must be fed."
He told IPS how his two sons were killed by random gunfire from the new Iraqi
army two years ago. "Now I have to take care of their two wives and six
children as well as my wife," he said. The market was full of people, but
poverty is obvious from the way people wander about trying to balance what to
spend with what they have in hand.
"Unemployment in Fallujah is a major problem that should be addressed,"
commented Jassim al-Muhammadi, a lawyer. "The financial situation is collapsing
every day and people do not know what to do. The siege is adding a lot to this
Ali Ahmed, a 17-year-old student, interrupted: "We do not need press releases
in this city, sir. What we really need is a solution to the everlasting problem
of this city ... The Americans and Iraqis in power accused us of terror, killed
thousands of us and now they are just talking about reconstruction. Well, they
are all thieves who only care for what they can pinch off the Iraqi fortunes.
Just tell them to leave us alone as we do not want their fraudulent reconstruction."
Ahmed added that the US military continued to kill and arrest people for any
reason whatsoever, and sometimes for no reason.
Infrastructure in Fallujah is just as bad as any other part of Iraq. Water,
electricity, cooking gas, fuel, telephone and mobile services are very poor.
All of the residents interviewed complained about the government's indifferent
attitude toward them. The majority believed it was for sectarian reasons, although
some others thought it is the same all over Iraq.
The mayor of Fallujah was not available to interview - in his latest appearance
on television he announced his resignation. In his statement televised on June
14, he declared firmly, "The Americans did not fulfill their promises to
me and so I resign."
Similar reports about the situation in Fallujah were made by the United Nations
Integrated Regional Information Network (IRIN) on May 21: "There is still
slow progress on humanitarian issues, according to local officials".The
report stated that two-thirds of the city's residents had returned but 15%,
or about 65,000, remained displaced in the outskirts of Fallujah, "living
in abandoned schools and government buildings".
The IRIN report, similar to what IPS found here, said, "Despite Baghdad
allocating $100 million for the city's reconstruction and $180 million for housing
compensation, very little can be seen visibly on the streets of Fallujah in
terms of reconstruction. There are destroyed buildings on almost every street.
Local authorities say about 60% of all houses in the city were totally destroyed
or seriously damaged and less than 20% of them have been repaired so far ...
Power, water treatment and sewage systems are still not functioning properly
and many districts of the city are without potable water."
Residents complained to IPS that they had less than four hours of electricity
per day, and there was great frustration that at least 30% of the allocated
reconstruction funds were shifted to pay for extra checkpoints and security
patrols in the city.
And while the residents continue to wait for the promised compensation funds,
of the 81 reconstruction projects slated for the city, fewer than 30 have been
completed and many others will most likely be cancelled due to lack of funding,
according to a Fallujah council member who spoke with IPS on condition of anonymity.
Current estimates of the amount needed to rebuild Iraq are between $70 billion
and $100 billion. Only 33% of the $21 billion originally allocated by the US
for reconstruction remains to be spent. According to a report by the US inspector
general for reconstruction in Iraq, officials were unable to say how many planned
projects they would complete, nor was there a clear source for the hundreds
of millions of dollars a year needed to maintain the projects that had been
As for Fallujah in particular, security has eaten up as much as 25% of reconstruction
funding, but even more has reportedly been siphoned off by corruption and overcharging
Last year, a US congressional inspection team was set up to monitor reconstruction
in Iraq. On May 1, it published a scathing report of the failure of US contractors
to carry out projects worth hundreds of millions of dollars. The report also
noted that nearly $9 billion in Iraqi oil revenues which had been disbursed
to ministries was "missing".
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