Student smoking a joint
Drug testing of the American public has
been steadily broadening over the past 20 years, from soldiers to
grocery baggers to high-school and middle-school students. In its 2007 budget,
the Bush administration asks for $15 million to fund random drug testing of
students—if approved, a 50 percent increase over 2006. Officials from
the federal drug czar's office are crisscrossing the country to sell the testing
to school districts.
Yet, according to the two major studies that have been conducted on
student testing, it doesn't actually reduce drug use. "Of most importance,
drug testing still is found not to be associated with students' reported illicit
drug use—even random testing that potentially subjects the entire student
body," determined the authors of the most recent study.
It seems like common sense that if students are warned they could be caught
getting high any day in school, they'd be less likely to risk it. And principals
and the drug czar's office argue that this random chance "gives kids a
reason to say no." But teens are notorious for assuming that nothing bad
will happen to them. Sure, some people get caught, but not me. In addition,
a student who chooses to do drugs already has more than a random chance of getting
caught—adults are everywhere in this world. Someone could see her, smell
smoke, see her bloodshot eyes, or wonder what the hell is so funny. And
since most schools test only students who do something more than just show up
for class—like join an after-school club, park on campus, or play a sport—kids
can avoid the activities rather than quit puffing. Testing may not change much
more of the equation than that.
Such are the findings of two major studies. The first
study, published in early 2003, looked at 76,000 students in eighth, 10th,
and 12th grades in hundreds of schools, between the years 1998 and 2001. It
was conducted by Ryoko Yamaguchi, Lloyd Johnston, and Patrick O'Malley out of
the University of Michigan, which also produces Monitoring
the Future, the university's highly regarded annual survey of student drug
use, which is funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse and whose numbers
the White House regularly cites.
The early 2003 Michigan study compared the rates of drug use, as measured by
Monitoring the Future, in schools that did some type of drug testing to schools
that did not. The researchers controlled for various demographic differences
and found across the board that drug testing was ineffective; there was no statistically
significant difference in the number of users at a school that tested for drugs
and a similar school that didn't.
The White House criticized the Michigan study for failing to look at the efficacy
of random testing. So, Yamaguchi, Johnston, and O'Malley added the random element
and ran their study again, this time adding data for the year 2002. The follow-up
study, published later in 2003, tracked 94,000 middle- and high-school students.
It reached the same results as its precursor. Even if drug testing is done randomly
and without suspicion, it's not associated with a change in the number of students
who use drugs in any category. The Michigan follow-up found one exception: In
schools that randomly tested students, 12th-graders were more likely to smoke
Results like these would mean budget cuts or death for some government programs.
The White House has devised its own rating system, known as the Program Assessment
Rating Tool, to help it cull failed initiatives. (These generally turn out to
be the type of programs you wouldn't expect a Republican administration to like,
but that's another
story.) In 2002, PART deemed "ineffective" the Safe and Drug Free
Schools State Grants program, the umbrella for school drug testing. The Office
of Management and Budget, which runs the PART evaluations, writes
on its Web site, "The program has failed to demonstrate effectiveness
in reducing youth drug use, violence, and crime." The PART evaluation did
not single out drug testing, which is a small part of the overall state grants
program. Still, combined with the Michigan studies, what we have here is a bureaucratic
pounding. That hasn't stopped President Bush from sounding an upbeat note. In
his 2004 State of the Union, he said, "I proposed new funding to continue
our aggressive, community-based strategy to reduce demand for illegal drugs.
Drug testing in our schools has proven to be an effective part of this effort."
Pressed for evidence to support the administration's bid to increase funds
for testing, drug officials challenge the Michigan study's methodology. Drug
czar John Walters has called for "detailed pre- and post-random testing
data"—that is, a study of the rate of drug use at a school before
a random testing program was initiated and then again afterward. Such a study
is currently under way with federal funds, but it comes with a built-in flaw.
Drug-use rates are obtained in questionnaires that school administrators give
to students. If the administrators are asking students about their drug-use
habits while they have the power to randomly test them, how honest can we expect
the students to be, no matter what anonymity they're promised?
Like Walters, the $766 million drug-testing industry isn't ready to give up
on testing students, for which it charges between $14 and $30 a cupful of pee.
Melissa Moskal, executive director of the 1,300-member Drug
and Alcohol Testing Industry Association, pointed me to a preliminary study
that she likes better than Michigan's and that Walters also frequently references.
The study is funded by the Department of Education and produced by the Institute
for Behavior and Health, and its lead author is Robert DuPont, a former White
House drug official. DuPont is also a partner at Bensinger,
DuPont & Associates. DuPont says that Bensinger "doesn't have anything
to do with drug testing." But the company's Web site states:
"BDA offers a range of products designed to help employers establish and
manage workplace drug and alcohol testing programs."
study, which he calls "descriptive," chose nine schools that met
certain criteria, the first of which was, "The student drug testing program's
apparent success." The study's methodology appears to add to the slant.
Rather than gathering information from students and analyzing it, DuPont relies
on a questionnaire that asks how effective administrators think their random
drug-testing program is. He doesn't claim neutrality. "I can't quite get
the argument that [drug testing] wouldn't work," he says. He's now working
on an evaluation of eight schools. The results won't be ready soon, but let's
venture a prediction: Random drug testing will come out looking good.
Ryan Grim writes for the Washington
Photograph of student smoking a joint by Bruce Preston.
W.House pushes more schools to drug-test students
by Andy Sullivan
Student athletes, musicians and others who participate in after school
activities could increasingly be subject to random drug testing under a program
promoted by the Bush administration.
Reuters Photo: A laboratory technician prepares samples for drug tests. Student athletes, musicians and others who participate...
White House officials say drug testing is an effective way to keep students
away from harmful substances like marijuana and crystal methamphetamine, and
have held seminars across the country to promote the practice to local school
But some parents, educators and school officials call it a heavy-handed, ineffective
way to discourage drug use that undermines trust and invades students' privacy.
"Our money should be going toward educating young people, not putting
them under these surveillance programs," said Jennifer Kern, a research
associate at the Drug Policy Alliance, a non-profit group that has frequently
criticized U.S. drug policy.
Requiring students to produce a urine sample or hair sample for laboratory
testing is a relatively recent tactic in the United States' decades-long "war
on drugs," along with surveillance cameras and drug-sniffing dogs in school
Adults in the military and many workplaces have long been subject to testing,
but U.S. courts have ruled that public schools cannot impose random tests on
an entire student body.
The Supreme Court ruled in 1995 that schools can randomly test student athletes
who are not suspected of drug use, and in 2002 ruled that all students who participate
in voluntary activities, like cheerleading, band or debate, could be subjected
to random tests.
Since then, the Bush administration has spent $8 million to help schools pay
for drug testing programs. The White House hopes to spend $15 million on drug-testing
grants in the next fiscal year.
Roughly 600 school districts now use drug tests out of about 15,000 nationwide,
according to officials from the White House Office of National Drug Control
White House officials liken drug testing to programs that screen for tuberculosis
or other diseases, and said students who test positive don't face criminal charges.
The threat of a drug test also helps students resist peer pressure, said John
Horton, an associate deputy director at the drug-control office.
JUST SAY 'NO I CAN'T'
"If I'm at a party and somebody says, 'Hey, do you want a hit of dope?'
if I can look at that person and say, 'No, I can't,' then that's one more tool
to say no," Horton said at a recent drug-testing conference in Virginia.
Critics say the White House's emphasis on testing comes at the expense of counseling,
treatment and education programs.
Studies are mixed on the programs' effectiveness. Several individual schools
reported declines in student drug use after implementing random testing, and
a survey of 65 Indiana principals found drug use decreased at more than half
of the schools where testing occurred.
But a 2003 national survey of 76,000 students found no difference in drug use
between schools that test students and those that don't.
Illicit drug use remained steady among high school students between 1997 and
2004, with roughly half of high school seniors saying they had tried illicit
drugs at some point, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Several school administrators said the White House presentation had persuaded
them of the benefits of random testing. But Baltimore social worker Karen Harris-Waites
said many in her school district would probably see a mandatory program as too
That's happened in other school districts. Williamsburg, Virginia, decided
to adopt a voluntary testing program earlier this month instead of a mandatory
And Roanoke County, Virginia, rejected a mandatory program in 2004. "It
just seems to be very intrusive," said Roanoke County parent Larry Morgan.
"Just because they say you can do something doesn't mean it's good policy."